SCB204: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
TEXT: Anatomy & Physiology by Kenneth Saladin, 6th edition ISBN: 0077508211
HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
LaGuardia Community College
Policy on Cheating
Instructors of this course are required to implement College policy regarding cheating on examination and quizzes. A complete statement is available through student counseling services.
A synopsis is as follows:
If an instructor suspects a student of cheating, of any of the violations listed below, the instructor will inform the student of his or her suspicion, and a student-teacher conference will be held. At that conference, the suspected violation and the instructor’s intended penalty for the violation will be discussed.
Give the student a copy of the STUDENT HANDOUT ON LAGUARDIA ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY (this document) and answer any questions the student may have.
Inform the student of the reasons for your suspicions and the intended penalties. These penalties may include, but are not limited to, the following:
If the student admits guilt, and agrees on the penalty, he/she should indicate so on the formal complaint. The instructor will then send the complaint to the Office of Academic Standing and impose the penalty.
If the student does not admit guilt or agree to the penalty, the student/teacher conference will end, and a hearing on the issue must be held. The instructor will then submit the complaint to the Office of Academic Standing, which will send a copy to the Dean of Students, who will then begin disciplinary proceedings.
If the records of the Office of Academic Standing indicate that the student has committed a similar offense, the Office of Academic Standing will:
Send a copy of the complaint to the Dean of Students, who will begin disciplinary proceedings.
HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
The final grade for Human Biology is calculated from both lecture and laboratory examination grades; 60% of the final grade is determine from the lecture exams and 40% from the lab exams.
Practical exams will be based on identification of laboratory materials displayed at stations. Written exams will include short answers, fill-ins, diagrams, and short essays. Attendance is compulsory for all labs. It will be the student’s responsibility to make-up any missed labs. No make-up exams are given in laboratory.
92.5-100 = A
CHEATING WILL RESULT IN FAILURE
SCB 203/204 INFORMATION SHEET
Attendance and punctuality are necessary for success; absence or lateness exceeding 10% is considered excessive. Classes will meet in accordance to the Academic Calendar (be sure to get a copy from the Information Desk in the Main Building) unless otherwise specified. Severe weather does not cancel classes; listen to your radio/TV for College closings.
Student rights and responsibilities can be found in the College Handbook and Catalog, please refer to them.
The Grading Policy for these courses can be found on page 3 of your course outline. Repeat, “R”, grades are not given in this course and Incompletes, “IN”, are issued only under very restricted circumstances. In order to receive an Incomplete, a student must have PASSING GRADES and be able to document why he/she is unable to complete the course work during the semester. Both the student and the instructor must complete and sign an Incomplete Form and list the exams that must be satisfactorily completed before a grade is issued. Students have 6 months to take the missing exams; otherwise the Incomplete is automatically converted to an F. An Incomplete does not provide a student with an opportunity to retake an exam(s); all prior grades are retained and added into the calculation of the final grade.
SCB 204: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
Lecture 1. Histology & Organization of the Nervous System
Describe the function of the nervous system in maintaining homeostasis
Classify the nervous systems into central, peripheral and enteric divisions.
Identify the different parts of a typical neuron, and categorize neurons according to structure and function.
Describe the characteristics and functions of neuroglia.
Describe how myelination occurs in the CNS and PNS, and explain its importance in signal transmission and nerve regeneration.
Distinguish between nerve and tract, ganglion and nucleus.
Lecture 2. Neuronal Function
Review membrane channels: leakage and gated (mechanically, ligand and voltage).
Define resting membrane potential and describe its electrochemical basis.
Compare and contrast local and action potentials.
Explain how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons.
Define saltatory conduction and contrast it to conduction along unmyelinated fibers. Include fiber diameter as a factor affecting conduction speed.
Describe how changes in extracellular calcium ions or potassium ions can disrupt neural function.
Lecture 3. Synaptic Transmission
List the events involved in the conduction of an impulse across a synapse (chemical & electrical).
Categorize neurotransmitters according to 1) chemical structure, 2) associated receptor types and 3) distribution in the CNS and PNS.
Categorize neurotransmitter action according to its a) effect on membrane potential (inhibitory or excitatory) and 2) mechanism of action (ionotropic or metabotropic).
Identify mechanisms for removing neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft and therefore ending transmission.
Explain how neuromodulators affect synaptic transmission and define synaptic potentiation.
Lecture 4. Neural Integration
Distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and explain facilitation.
Contrast convergence and divergence, and relate them to temporal and spatial summation.
Describe a reverberating circuit.
Describe how sensory pathways diverge and motor pathways converge.
Lecture 5. CNS – Spinal Cord Organization and Function
QUIZ 1 (LECTURES 1-4)
Define the spinal cord as the inferior extension of the brain.
Describe the principal structural features of the spinal cord including the locations of the sensory, motor, and visceral nuclei.
Describe the structure of a typical spinal nerve.
Define a plexus.
List the name, composition, and functions of the principal plexuses.
Describe the segmental innervations of the body, defining the term dermatone, and summarize the clinical significance of segmental innervations.
Describe the functions of the spinal cord. Compare and contrast the functions of the ascending and descending tracts and explain decussation.
Lecture 6. Reflexes
Define a reflex and list the components of a reflex arc
Distinguish between a spinal and cranial reflex; somatic and visceral (autonomic) reflex.
Compare a stretch reflex with a flexor (withdrawal ) reflex as examples of mono & polysynaptic reflexes. Describe the crossed extensor reflex
Define: contralateral, ipsilateral, reciprocal inhibition.
Explain how reflexes are important to motor coordination; list 4 properties of of a reflex.
Lecture 7. CNS – Brain- Organization and Function
Identify the 3 principal parts of the brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem ( diencephalon, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata)).
Describe the structures that protect the brain and the spinal cord (meninges, bones, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood-brain barrier).
Trace the formation and circulation of the CSF.
Explain the distribution of grey and white matter in the brain and how it differs in the spinal cord.
List the major lobes, fissures, sulci/gyri and functional areas of the cerebral cortex and lateralization of the hemispheres.
Locate the motor, association, sensory and limbic areas of the cerebrum and explain their functions.
Lecture 8. Brain Functions & Cranial Nerves
Describe the location of the diencephalon and the functions of its parts.
Identify the anatomical characteristics and functions of the cerebellum.
Describe the structure and functions of the pons, midbrain and medulla.
Explain the importance of the reticular activating system and basal nuclei.
Differentiate between commissures, association, and projection fibers.
Identify by number and name the 12 pairs of cranial nerves. List them with respect to type, origin, distribution and function.
Lecture 9. Neural Integration of the CNS
Describe the organization of the sensory and motor pathways.
Differentiate between pathways and tracts, and first, second and third order sensory neurons as well as upper and lower motor neurons.
Explain the sensory and motor homunculi.
Explain referred and phantom pain.
Lecture 10. Autonomic Branches of Peripheral Nervous System.
QUIZ 2 (LECTURES 5-9)
Compare and contrast the structural and functional differences between the somatic, autonomic and enteric portions of the peripheral nervous system.
Identify the structural features of the autonomic nervous system while conceiving it as reflex pathways.
Compare and contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system; discuss dual innervation.
List the neurotransmitters released by the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons (both preganglionic and postganglionic).
Describe cholinergic and adrenergic receptors on target cells.
Discuss the relationship of the autonomic nervous system to the enteric nervous system.
Lecture 11. Disorders of the Nervous System
List the clinical symptoms of disorders of the nervous system, including Multiple Sclerosis, Meningitis, Sciatica, Spinal Cord Trauma, Spina bifida, Tay- Sacs, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s & Parkinson’s diseases.
Define medical terminology associated with the nervous system.
Describe the actions and effects of various drugs on nervous function.
Lecture 12. Cutaneous Perception
List the general properties of sensory receptors
Compare the location and function of exteroceptors, interoceptors and proprioceptors.
List the location and function of the receptors for touch, pressure, temperature, pain and proprioception.
Define sensory adaptation, generator potential, label-line code, receptive field, sensation and perception.
Lecture 13. The Eye
Describe the structure and functions of the accessory eye structures.
Describe the gross anatomy and histology of the eye.
Describe retinal image formation including refraction, accommodation, constriction of the pupil, convergence, and inverted image.
Define emmetropia, myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.
Compare and contrast the roles of rods and cones in vision.
Describe the physiology of vision and light transduction.
Describe the afferent pathway of impulses from the eye to the brain.
Lecture 14. Hearing and Equilibrium
Define the anatomical subdivisions of the ear and describe their structure.
Describe the principal events involved in the physiology of hearing.
Identify the receptor organs for equilibrium and their neural pathways.
Describe the maintenance of dynamic and static equilibrium.
Explain how rotational movements, gravity and acceleration affects the equilibrium apparatus.
Describe 2 different types of deafness – conductive and sensorineural.
Lecture 15. Olfaction and Gustation
Locate the receptors for olfaction and describe the neural pathway for smell.
Describe the physiological process for the discrimination of odors.
Identify the gustatory receptors and describe the neural pathway for taste.
Describe the physiology of taste and basic taste sensations.
Discuss the interaction of olfaction and gustation in taste perception.
Lecture 16. Behavioral Regulation Through Hormones
QUIZ 3 (LECTURES 10-15)
Discuss the function of the endocrine system as a body control system and compare it to the nervous system.
Review the differences between endocrine and exocrine glands.
Identify the relationship between an endocrine gland and a target organ.
Define the term hormone and discuss their chemistry with regard to first and second messenger activation.
Review negative and positive feedback mechanisms with examples.
Lecture 17. Pituitary and Adrenal Glands
Define the anatomical and physiological relationship between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
List the seven hormones of the adenohypophysis, their target organs, and functions.
Define the source of hormones stored by the neurohypophysis, their target organs, and functions.
Relate a negative feedback mechanism to the regulation of hormones secreted by the pituitary.
Describe the histology of the adrenal gland and medullary secretions as supplements to sympathetic stimulation.
List hormones produced by the adrenal gland, and cite their physiological effects.
Compare the effects of hypo-and hypersecretions of adrenal hormones.
Define the general stress syndrome and compare homeostatic responses and stress responses.
Lecture 18. Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pancreas and Pineal Glands.
Describe how thyroxin is synthesized, stored, and transported by thyroid follicles.
Identify the physiological effects and regulation of thyroxin and calcitonin.
Describe the physiological effects and regulation of the parathyroid hormone.
Describe the structure of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
Compare the roles of glucagon and insulin in the control of blood sugar level.
Identify the physiological effects of the hormones secreted by the pineal gland.
Lecture 19. MIDTERM EXAMINATION
Lecture 20. Alimentary and Accessory Organ Function, Salivary Glands and Dentition
Identify the organs of the alimentary canal and the accessory organs of digestion.
Describe the histology of the alimentary canal.
Discuss the location and function of the peritoneum.
Describe the role of the mouth in mechanical digestion.
Identify the location of the salivary glands.
Define the function of saliva in digestion.
Describe the mechanisms that regulate the secretion of saliva.
Compare deciduous and permanent dentitions.
Lecture 21. Deglutition and Gastrointestinal Structure
Describe the sequence of events involved in swallowing.
Describe the mechanisms by which food is moved along the alimentary canal and the protective action of mucus.
Describe the structural features of the stomach and the relationship between these features and digestion.
Describe those structural features of the small intestine that adapt it for digestion.
Discuss both stomach and small intestine motility.
Trace the duct system from the accessory organs to the duodenum.
Describe the digestive functions of the pancreas.
List the major functions of the liver and gallbladder.
Lecture 22. Enzymatic Digestion and Large Intestine
Describe the sequential enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, naming the enzymes, organs and intermediate and end products formed as food passes through the alimentary canal.
Describe those structural features of the large intestine that adapt it for feces formation, elimination and vitamin production.
Describe the mechanical movements of the large intestine.
Describe the processes involved in feces formation.
Describe the mechanisms involved in defecation.
Lecture 23. Absorption and the Hepatic Portal System
Describe in detail and with illustration the villus structure of the small intestine.
Explain the absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in the small intestine.
Explain the absorption of vitamins, water and electrolytes in the small intestine.
Compare and contrast the fates of the absorbed nutrients.
Describe the mechanisms by which the liver can convert, release or store amino acids, fatty acids and monosaccharides.
Lecture 24. Neural and Hormonal Control of Digestion.
Describe the mechanics involved in the cephalic, gastric and intestinal phases of gastric digestion. What inhibits gastric secretion and motility?
Describe the role of the enteric nervous system in regulating digestion.
Discuss the regulation of pancreatic and hepatic secretions to the duodenum.
Describe the mechanisms involved in the hormonal control of digestion in the stomach and small intestine.
Describe the major disorders of the digestive system.
Lecture 25. Nutrition
QUIZ 4 (LECTURES 20-24)
Define the term nutrient and calorie and describe how they are related to metabolism.
Define metabolism and contrast between the physiological effects of catabolism and anabolism.
Define basal metabolic rate and list factors that affect it.
Explain what is meant by an essential amino acid and fatty acid and their major sources.
Define mineral. List the major minerals and their functions.
Differentiate between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, discuss the antioxidant benefit of some vitamins, and list the vitamins in each group and their importance.
Contrast the physiological factors involved in starvation and obesity.
Lecture 26. Cellular Metabolism-Carbohydrates
Compare the types and sources of carbohydrates
Describe the fate of glucose as it is catabolized via glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.
Compare anaerobic and aerobic respiration.
Define glycogenesis as an example of carbohydrate anabolism.
Define glycogenolysis as an example of carbohydrate catabolism.
Define gluconeogenesis as a conversion of noncarbohydrate sources into glucose.
Lecture 27. Lipid and Protein Metabolism
Compare the types and sources of lipids.
Explain the catabolism and anabolism of lipids. Be sure to include Beta Oxidation.
Discuss food sources of protein.
Give examples of protein anabolism.
Discuss protein catabolism and deamination.
Lecture 28. Gross Anatomy of Urinary System
List the functions of the Urinary System and an overview of its anatomy.
Identify the gross anatomy of the kidney.
Desscribe the anatomy of a nephron.
Describe the blood and the nerve supply to the kidneys.
Describe the structure of the ureters.
Describe the structure of the urinary bladder.
Describe the structure of the urethra.
Lecture 29. Histology and Physiology of Urinary System
Describe the process of urine formation.
Define glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion.
Define the chemical composition of plasma, glomerular filtrate, and urine.
Define the forces that support and oppose the filtration of blood in the kidneys.
Discuss renal suppression as a disorder resulting from a decreased filtration pressure.
Describe the physiological role of tubular reabsorption.
Describe the tubular secretion as a mechanism of excretory elimination and a control of blood pH.
Lecture 30. Physiology of the Urinary System and Homeostasis
Define kidney excretion of H+ and NH4+ as a means of maintaining the pH of the body while conserving bicarbonate.
Describe the effects of blood pressure, diet, temperature, and age on urine production.
Describe the physiology of micturition.
Compare the cause of incontinence and retention.
Define renal threshold and describe how it affects urine contents.
Describe how renal blood pressure can influence urine output.
Lecture 31. Biochemistry and Pathology of the Urinary System
Describe the roles of the pituitary, hypothalamus, and adrenals in urine formation and homeostasis.
Explain the kidney’s role in erythropoiesis and blood pressure regulation.
Describe the causes of ptosis, kidney stones, gout, glomerulonephritis, pyelitis, and incontinence.
Describe the operational principle of hemodialysis.
Define medical terminology associated with the urinary system.
Lecture 32. Organization of the Male Reproductive System
Describe the general gross anatomy of the male reproductive system.
Describe the role of the scrotum in protecting the testes.
Describe how the testes produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone (meiosis is discussed in lab)..
Describe the physiological effects of testosterone.
Trace the course of sperm cells through the system of ducts that lead from the testes to the exterior.
Contrast the functions of the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and Cowper’s glands in secreting constituents of seminal fluid.
Lecture 33. Organization of the Female Reproductive System
Describe the general gross anatomy of the female reproductive system.
Describe the ovaries as glands that produce ova and female sex hormones (meiosis is discussed in lab).
Describe the physiological effects of estrogen and progesterone.
Describe the uterine tubes.
Identify the uterus as the organ that holds the fetus. Describe its histology, blood supply and ligaments.
Identify the functions of the vagina.
List the external genitalia and their functions.
Describe the structure and development of the mammary glands.
Lecture 34. Coitus, Fertilization and Menstruation.
Describe the principal events of the menstrual and ovarian cycles.
Correlate the activities of both menstrual and ovarian cycles.
Describe the hormonal interactions that control the menstrual and ovarian cycles.
Describe the activities associated with fertilization and implantation.
Explain puberty and menopause.
Discuss in vitro fertilization, embryo storage and stem cell research.
Lecture 35. Embryology, Parturition and Lactation
Describe early embryonic development from the zygote to the formation of the primary germ layers.
List the body structures produced by each primary germ layer.
Discuss the structures and functions of the embryonic membranes.
Describe the roles of the placenta and umbilicus during embryonic and fetal growth.
Describe the principal body changes associated with the growth of the fetus. Differentiate between a fetus and an embryo.
Compare and contrast the sources and functions of the hormones secreted during pregnancy.
Describe the three stages of labor.
Describe the physiology of lactation.
Lecture 36. Inheritance
Review DNA as the source of the genetic information.
Distinguish between genotype and phenotype.
Explain how phenotypes can result from allele combinations, polygene inheritance and environmental factors.
Define mutation and its effects.
Discuss non-traditional inheritance such as mitochondrial inheritance.
Discuss amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling and genetic counseling.
Give examples of how genetic engineering is producing new and cheap medicines and revolutionizing treatment of medical disorders.
Explain the Human Genome Project and its expected benefits/problems.
FINAL LECTURE EXAMINATION DURING EXAM WEEK